traces of five drugs found on 1000-year-old south american ritual kit
An old collection of drug utensils found in a rock shelter in Bolivia has traces of five psychoactive chemicals, including cocaine and ayahuasca.
Researchers say this is the largest number of psychoactive compounds found in archaeological discoveries in South America.
The plants they come from are not native to the highland areas where they are found, so they may have been brought there by trade networks or traveling shamans.
These artifacts are found in the ruins of a building in the southern lepez heights that may be buried in the burial ground. Western Bolivia
Including a 28centimetre-
Long leather bag, a pair of wooden snu pieces, a snu tube, a pair of camels --
Bone spatula, textile headband, fragments of dry plant stems, and bags made of three Fox noses stitched together.
Comfortable tubes and tablets feature gorgeous human carvingslike figures.
Radioactive carbon dating sets the date of the bag at AD 905 to 1170, roughly in line with the collapse of the state of Tiwanaku, which used to be
The powerful Andean civilization lasted for about five centuries.
Drugs are considered to play an important role in the Tiwanaku culture and may have played an important role in therapeutic instruments and religious ceremonies believed to be able to engage with the deceased.
Melanie Miller of Otago University in New Zealand and her colleagues analyzed samples of bags and plant stems with mass spectrometry.
They have detected five psychoactive compounds: cocaine, benzolenin (BZE)
, Bufortan, hamini and double tryptamine (DMT).
Both cocaine and BZE are present in coca leaves, which are usually chewed or made into tea in Bolivia and Peru and have had a slight excitement until today.
These compounds have previously been found in the hair of the mummy body in the area, and even in the hair of the baby, which the baby may consume in the mother\'s milk.
Harmine and DMT are one of the active ingredients of ayahuasca, a psychedelic beer made from a variety of plants and used by Native South American peoples for spiritual rituals.
Another psychedelic compound Bufotenine is found in the skin of some seeds and certain toads.
The virus was also found in the mummy\'s hair.
The presence of these drugs suggests that this bag may belong to a ritual expert or shaman who has a broad understanding of the plant and its psychoactive properties and is used to preserve the leaves, seeds and other plant substances.
These seeds may be ground on comfortable tablets and inhaled in test tubes, while the leaves may be chewed or brewed in a drink.
Journal reference: Journal of the National Academy of Sciences, DOI: 10. 1073/pnas.