beaded cloth shoulder bags: bandoliers of the southeast.
Although McKinney and Hall write three volumes of The Epic History of the North American Indian tribe, which shows some of the Creekmen wearing these bags in the 1820 s (Fig. 1). Goggin (1951)
The first person to report them in detail. 1967)
In his investigation of seminore men\'s clothing, this was the first person to consider their structural features, indicating that they were worn on a hip and hung on a strap on the opposite shoulder.
He claimed that they had transported tobacco, pipes, flint and steel, ammunition and Oilstones, but they have been out of date since about 1910.
He also said that they may come from indigenous peoples and from Europe in the 18 th century --
Members of the American border Band
Dorothy Downs (1995)
In her wider comments on the art of seminor and micosuki, she believes that these bags have at least four different forms in the stream
Three of them are wool wrapped with fingers.
The fourth form she considered was the commercial wool trade cloth structure, lined with cotton cloth, embroidered with glass beads on the broadband
Thread cover or spots
This is the form of their curious design of beads that appears in recent museum exhibitions, reports, books, and maybe 30-
Over the years, 40 of these interesting items have been auctioned and expensive, reflecting their rarity and historical importance.
They are usually given occasionally to the home of a stream or Seminole (
Few chocolate or fish pools)
Variants from Shawnee and DelawareBoth Downs (1995)
And stutfante (1967)
Does not rule out the possible Mississippi origin of two bags or their decorative design elements, these elements were transformed at the beginning of the 19 th century to depict crocodile with open or closed eyes, esoteric beadwork other birds of Wild Turkey, snakes, bat and mythical phenomena, special significance to the manufacturer or owner of the bag.
Although it was not known when the stream and their neighbors began to embroider beads, probably in the mid-18th century, we knew that European glass beads were in the local hands as early as the de to era, the British trade beads 1690 in Georgia today.
The South-East pearl embroidery is speculative divided into Western styles (
Hogan, Chisso, Koasati, Alabama)
And oriental style (Creek-
Seminor, Chi, Cherokee)
The latter is dominated by natural phenomena and religious symbols.
Beadwork with a finer appearance may indicate the source of Cherokee (Figs. 2 &3)
Design elements such as the more rustic look of Crick and Seminole.
In general, it is impossible to distinguish between creekole and Seminole shoulder bags, because they are the same person in general. [
Figure 1 slightly]
In addition to Josiah Francis Bao from the British Museum (Fig. 4)
, Maybe the oldest Southeast backpack of any kind in existence, and some other bags, such as the chief cloud bag (Fig. 5)
And leg bags (Fig. 6)
, There seems to be very few documents, so the suggestion of any tribal change is largely a guess.
So these objects still raise many questions: * what date is the earliest triangle
Made a flap bag? (
They were obviously early.
Date tragic deportation period of the 1830 s).
* What tribal changes may be attributed according to the structure or decoration analysis?
* Is there any African
The impact of the United States on the design of beadwork?
Seminole and run-
Far away from black slaves, they set up independent settlements in the three Seminole wars after the Creek War of 1813 and fought with the Seminoles1814.
* What\'s the relationship between the Creek-
Shawnee and the Seminole bag in Delaware? [
Figure 3 slightly][
Figure 4 slightly][
Figure 5 Slightly][
Figure 6 slightly][
Figure 7 Slightly]
However, the preliminary investigation may arrange these bands into the following types:)
Muskogian or CreekSeminole type (
Is it possible to include any example of Yuchior Hogan? ): Creek-
The Seminole bag is rectangular, usually almost square, in which direction it is usually about 7 inch to 8 inch, and the height is about 20 inch to 24 inch.
The label may be 4 inch to 8 inch long, the strap is attached to the bag in the corner or occasionally in the back or front, about where the strap is divided into labels.
The number of labels can be from one to five.
Most Creek bags have two and seminor, and while the seminor bag can be long and narrow, the width is different.
The \"V\" flap on the bag can be terminated horizontally with the bottom of the bag or just below or above a point or sometimes a small round end.
Hanging the wool tassel along the bottom edge;
Same as on the label. B)
Cherokee type: Sam Houston Cherokee package (Fig. 7)
There is a rectangular bag that is slightly longer than width, and this feature appears on other possible Cherokee bags.
They also show exquisite and symmetrical design elements.
Combined, this may indicate the Cherokee type.
The strap of the Houston bag also has a rounded end with no label. C)
Shawnee variant: Shawnee (Figs. 8&9)
Reported in Kansas, Missouri and Arkansas, is structurally related to the size and shape of the Creek bag.
However, even between 1836 and 1840, there are very few creeks in these areas. The Shawnee-
Relationships and friendships are much older.
In the 18 th century, the Shawnee band lived in the stream, and Tecumseh famously tried to fight for his alliance against 1811 of Americans from krecsin. In 1784--
1785 Ontario recently established six National protected areas with 53 creeks and Cherokee people.
During the Seminole War in 1837, Shawnee and de la variscoates were operating in Florida (Brasser2007).
Therefore, before these tribes finally settled in the OklahomaIndian area, there was a great opportunity for the transfer of material culture. [
The shoulder strap given to Shawnee\'s source usually has a truncated \"V\" flap and is square at the end of the three shoulder strap labels.
Beadwork is usually similar to Delaware style and has a large symmetrical solid color area.
However, most likely these live Shawnee bags were made in the West, where beadwork moti appeared in the medium term
The 19 th century was an interaction between displaced tribes such as Shawnee and Delaware, Ohio, and a stream in the southeast.
This mixed art style is a major contribution to social development
Known as the \"Prairie\" style of the eastern and southern Plains tribes.
The bag, once exhibited at the old Heye Foundation Museum and labeledShawnee in New York, has a round \"V\" flip bag and a round label, most likelyD)
Delaware variants: Although shoulder straps that give Delaware status are often considered to be variations of Shawnee and southeast form, bags with shoulder straps have a long history in the Northeast tribe.
Some 18th-century antique specimens have been marked with deer skin bags with goose or moose embroidered straps (Fig. 10).
The 19 th century Delaware bag does not have a \"V\" flip bag, but there are three at the end of the shoulder strapoff tabes.
Their work contains large symmetrical elements in the shape of \"Spades\" and in the form of curves, sometimes gorgeous.
It is strange that a bag that once belonged to the chief of oakama Delaware (Fig. 11)
There is a shoulder strap that shows the typical Delaware beach and the beach that looks like a stream of PochonSeminole.
This obvious combination is opposed to making a clear tribal attribution to some similar packages. [
Figure 9 omitted[
Figure 10 slightly][
Figure 11 omitted]
Delaware shoulder bags may also have metal cones on the edge, wool or deer hair on the bottom edge, and 4 inch metres below the bag opening, similar to the 18th-century buckskin sac.
Delaware pouches like Cherokee are often confiscated. [
Figure 14 omitted][
Mysterious variant: a variant of Delaware, once exhibited at the Heye Foundation in New York, and now at the National Museum of American Indians. No.
10/9723, which belongs to Miami, is most likely made or used by them.
Interestingly, at the end of the 19 th century and the beginning of the 20 th century, there were some Shawnee and dravare variants, a photo from Mohegan, Connecticut.
Some Penobscot and Passamaquoddy were photographed wearing them (Figs. 12 & 13). However, Dr. Brasser(2007)
Provided credible scenarios to explain the return of Indian Civil War veterans or individuals of displaced tribes to their ancestral homes from the Territory of Kansas or the Indian state of the state of okhara, who brought Western tribes
Since the beginning of the fur trade, this west-east passage of American Indian art has been included in the list, resulting in some samples collected from eastern locals with incorrect tribal attribution.
A flap bag was collected from the Soviets: one from the Smithsonian Institution, the other from the Brooklyn Museum.
While they are made by the sultans, it seems incredible, the individual members of the eastern tribe are active in the West and may act as such bags in trade or gifts.
Artist Seth Eastman wears about 1850 (Fig. 14). [
Different scholars have explored the interpretation of the Pearl pattern (
This suggests that some designs are connected by the material of this \"Earth world\", and that when they are placed on a container like a bag, the forces of their cosmic fields surround these
Something of this nature may work on some creeksSeminole bags.
Of course, the amazing similarities of the Seminole Diamond
The shape design of hook-like accessories with some beadedmotifs patterns on Cree and Yi loqui materials is very eye-catching.
Probably because of a similar magico-
Religious and cultural concepts produce similar images at such a distant distance, rather than tribal influences.
The lack of a satisfactory explanation of the design of the beads on the Late Woodland and the original decorative materials, which may be due to their hunting and the rapid collapse of agricultural traditions in the face of Europe --
Especially interesting and important is Diamond, triangle, zig-
The shape of Zag and hourglass and its relationship with humans, animals and birds (
There may also be traditions of ancestors and Warriors.
Recently, there has been renewed interest in these beautiful Southeast shoulders --
Daytime members of the Delaware, Creek, Seminole and Cherokee tribes, producing vintage, exquisite bags (Dubin 1999).
At present, Martha Berry, a Cherokee, is actively making backpacks with various pearl designs. [
Ted, Ph. D.
Personal Communications, 2007
Downs, Dorothy. (1995).
Art of Seminole Florida and miccosukee Indians.
University of Florida PressDubbin, Louis. (1999).
Jewelry and decorations for North American Indians from prehistoric times to present (pp. 191, 195).
New York: Harry N. Abrams.
Goggin, John M. (1951).
Pearl shoulder bag in FloridaSeminole.
Anthropologist in Florida
Thomas L. McKinneyand James Hall. (1933-1934).
History of the North American Indian tribe, Vols 1-111.
Edinburgh: John Grant.
Is Diamond the best friend of Kerry girl? .
Paper of 32 algonkean conference.
William C stuttfant(1967).
Seminole men\'s clothing.
Language Arts and Visual Arts.
American Association of ethnographersThanks to Dr.
Ted Brasser shared some ideas about certain points of view
Cath Oberholtzer provided a copy of her speech for the 32 algonkean conference.
Also, Guy Wood\'s thoughts on the Derby Museum sample. .